Contents

Contents of educational material, which consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations, available in PDF file format:   CONTENTS – THE STATE OF OUR OCEANS – 150512

 

THE STATE OF OUR OCEANS

PowerPoint Presentations

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION – WHY OUR OCEANS ARE SO IMPORTANT  (13 slides)

  • What the oceans provide: food, jobs, transportation, water, recreation, wildlife, weather and climate control, oxygen
  • Three key human-induced factors are making the oceans sick: overfishing, climate change, and marine pollution

 

 

MARINE POLLUTION – THE IMPACTS OF PLASTIC DEBRIS  (93 slides)

  • ABOUT PLASTIC AND PLASTIC IN THE OCEANS
    • What is plastic?
    • What is plastic so bad for our environment
    • How much plastic gets into our oceans and how does it get there?
      • From land sources
      • From ocean sources
    • What happens to plastics in the oceans?
      • Photodegradation and fragmentation
      • Floating, sinking, and suspended plastic
      • Ocean gyres, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic gyres
  • The 4 major problems with plastics in the oceans:
  1. LEACHING AND ABSORPTION  
    • Toxic chemicals that are leached and absorbed by plastic
    • Bioaccumulation and biomagnification
    • How the toxic chemicals from leaching and absorption of plastic are affecting both marine animals and humans

     How plastics are hurting, poisoning, and killing marine animals:

  1. ENTANGLEMENT
    • Which debris causes the most entanglement
    • Results of entanglement
    • Victims of entanglement:
      • Seabirds
      • Sea turtles
      • Seals and sea lions
      • Cetacean species (Whales, dolphins, porpoises)
  1. INGESTION
    • Why marine animals ingest plastic
    • Results of ingestion of plastic by marine animals
    • Which marine animals ingest plastic and how they are affected?:
      • Seabirds
      • Sea turtles
      • Marine mammals
      • Fish
      • Small filter feeders and plankton
  1. SPREAD OF INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES
  • The current status of plastic disposal and some of the things that we can do

 

 

MARINE POLLUTION – TOXIC WASTE AND NOISE POLLUTION  (71 slides)

  • TOXIC WASTE
    • Types of marine pollution
    • Sources of marine pollution
      • Land-based
      • Ocean-based
    • The results of marine pollution from toxic waste:
      • Bioaccumulation and biomagnification
      • The effects of marine pollution on marine animals
        • Marine mammals
        • Sea turtles
        • Marine birds
      • The effects of marine pollution on humans
      • Results of oil spills
      • Eutrophication
      • Dead zones

 

  • NOISE POLLUTION
    • Underwater sound and marine animals
    • Three major sources of man-made ocean noise:
      • Surface ocean traffic
      • Military sonar
      • Seismic air guns
    • Other sources of marine noise pollution
    • Results of exposure to man-made ocean noise
    • Noise pollution is causing many marine animals to beach themselves

 

 

OVERFISHING  (50 slides)

  • Unsustainable fishing:
    • Bycatch
    • Types of unsustainable fishing practices:
      • Bottom trawling
      • Longlining
      • Gillnetting
      • Purse seining
      • Drift netting
      • Small-scale fisheries bycatch
      • Factory Ships
      • Dynamite and Cyanide fishing (coral reefs)
      • Shark Finning
    • Results of overfishing
    • Reducing overfishing

 

CLIMATE CHANGE – IMPACTS ON OUR OCEANS AND LAND  (33 slides)

    • Global warming and climate change
    • Major man-made sources of global greenhouse gas emissions
    • Global emissions, temperature rise, and species extinction
  • OUR OCEANS AND GLOBAL WARMING
    • Ocean acidification and ocean warming
      • How they are affecting life in the oceans
  • OTHER IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING
    • Melting sea ice
    • Weather patterns and severe weather events
    • Melting glaciers – water and food security
    • Rising sea levels
    • Higher levels of precipitation
    • Desertification
    • Climate change is already threatening many animals
    • Future warming
  • Ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
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